Leadership in Organizations

Answer all questions
Que 1.
Different approaches to leadership emphasize different components of leadership. Whereas trait and behavioural approaches emphasize the attributes and behaviours of the leader, respectively, follower-based approaches focus on the attributions, perceptions, and expectations of followers. Using literature from the course, discuss how these three leadership approaches (trait, behavioural, and follower-based) can be integrated to explain leadership effectiveness. If desired, you can also use publicly accessible cases to illustrate themes you are discussing (please attach any case used as an Appendix).
Que 2.
Close friends describe Grethe Hagen as a perfectionist with a strong work ethic. After graduating from BI, Grethe joined a management consultancy firm as part of the firms graduate trainee program. She was recruited because of her outstanding academic results and the strong analytical skills she displayed during a case interview.
As a new consultant Grethe was responsible for business process improvement and leading new technology deployment for her clients. Soon enough, she was identified as having high potential, and considered for the accelerated leader development program where she would be fast tracked into senior management.
Part of Gretes initial evaluation for the leadership development program was based on a multisource 360 feedback assessment of her skills, effectiveness and influence as a manager of both projects and people. In this assessment, Grete received rave reviews from her superiors, peers, and clients for her technical competence and results-oriented behaviour. However, she received low ratings from her subordinates on a number of people skills. In particular, subordinates reported that Grete had a tendency to show favouritism towards some of her subordinates. She was perceived as focusing her time and positive work energies on favoured employees. Further, she was perceived as rarely acknowledging the efforts or achievements of non-favoured employees, as leaving non-favoured employees out of key decisions, and sometimes even treating them rudely or disrepectively. Gretes self-ratings on these same behaviours indicated a large discrepancy between how subordinates perceived her as a manager, and how Grete perceived herself.
Using relevant theories and studies from the course curriculum, identify the main issues that Grete faces as a people manager. Propose and elaborate a leadership development plan that will address these issues.

PEOPLE WITH PHYSICAL DISABILITIES

MODEL TYPE : INEQUALITIES IN HEALTH
Explore the major reasons for their health inequalities and the impact it has on this group. Critically discuss different strategies to support what needs to happen to improve the health of this group.
INTRODUCTION:
This essay will explore the health inequalities of people with physical disabilities and the impact health inequality has on them. It will also discuss different strategies that has be put in place to support and improve the health of people with physical disabilities. It will also argued and identify theories and discuss important principles that needs to be taken into consideration to improve health inequalities in people with physical disabilities. (PLEASE FOLLOW THIS INTRODUCTION WHEN WRITING)
1. Defined Health Inequalities and Physical Disability
(Reference)
2. Theories of Inequalities: – Social Factors and life
course of health –
Book – Davey Smith, G. (ed) (2003) Health Inequalities.
Life course Approaches. Bristol: Polity Press Bristol.
3. Social Determinant of Health Book – (Dalgreen
and Whitehead, 1998)
4. Discuss the social and psychological explanation to health inequalities and the impact this has on people with physical disabilities and strategies that will improve inequality on the health of people of this group. Books – Wilkinson, R (1996) Unhealthy Societies London :Routledge
Bartley, M. (2004) Health inequality: An introduction to Concepts, Theories and Methods. Cambridge: Polity.Chapter 6
5. Psychosocial Aspect – Book ( Davey Smith, G. (ed) (2003) Health Inequalities. Lifecourse Approaches. Bristol: The Policy Press Section 1)
6. Identify patterns of health Inequality and inequity between people living in a disadvantage area and those living in an influence area.
Public Health England (2017) Learning Disabilities Observatory
Department of Health (2016) work, health and disability green paper
Office for National Statistic (2018)

7. Critical evaluation of the potential impact taken by government and it social policies with the initiatives and interventions in reducing health inequalities for people with physical disabilities
Include 2 articles relating to health Inequalities with physical disabilities

Kent County Council (2016) Public Health report. Available at: http://www.kpho.org.uk/annual-reports#tab1

Lister, R. (2010).Understanding theories and concepts in social policy. Bristol: Policy Press.
Marmot, M (2010). Fair Society, Healthy Lives: The Marmot Review. London: UCL Institute of Health Equity.
Nutbeam, D. (2004). Getting evidence into policy and practice to address health inequalities. Health promotion International, 19,(2). 137-140.
Conclusion and Recommendation

Does over supervision of business management students at Gates University from the ages of 18 to 25 affect their future ability to take initiative and ability to work independently?

TOPIC:1. Does over supervision of business management students at Gates University from the ages of 18 to 25 affect their future ability to take initiative and ability to work independently?

The Link between Supervision and Productivity
Does over-supervision of business management students at Kean University from ages 18 to 25 affect their future ability to take initiative and ability to work independently?
Glanz, J., Shulman, V., & Sullivan, S. (2007). 2 Impact of Instructional Supervision on Student Achievement: Can We Make the Connection? (pp. 8-30). Chicago. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED496124.pdf
The main point of the report was to report the third part of a study that looked at the state of supervision in schools. The paper looked into the role that supervision plays in the learning process. The first part was all about relevant data collection. The subsequent one presented that information while the las part analyzed all that information. Therefore, this particular paper will interrogate the educational superstructure and analyze how well supervision is helping to achieve learning outcomes in New York schools. The source is relevant because it shows the process of research in student supervision. The conclusions are the end product of well-reasoned arguments founded on empirical data. The legitimacy of the paper comes from the fact that it was presented at the AERA. That is a forum that brings together professionals in the Education sector in New York.
Dartmouth College. (2017). Supervision of Students. Dartmouth.edu. Retrieved 25 February 2018, from http://www.dartmouth.edu/~seo/employers/supervision.html
Dartmouth College has a very informative information desk on its online portal. There are various issues one can know from the site, but the relevant part of the conversation is about the supervisor. The primary focus of that information is to inform the reader of the roles of a supervisor. These are spelt out clearly. It is relevant to my research topic since it provides clear definitions of the traits of a good supervisor. These will be instrumental in the analysis since they will act as reference points, tethering the conversation around the appropriate quality and quantity of supervision students at KeanUniversity should get. Most likely, the conclusions on the website come from institutional experience. The fact that the website belongs to an institution makes it possible to believe in its authenticity and credibility.
Texas Accountability Intervention System. (2018). Texas Continuous Improvement Framework: Creating Sustainable Change. Texas.
The Texas Accountability Intervention System offers mechanisms of improving the learning outcomes of students in a campus setting. Academic performance is the logical by-product of a well calibrated learning experience. The paper is relevant to this research because it shows that it is indeed possible to quantify and quality the appropriate amount of supervision as a critical success factor (CSF). The conclusions in the paper come in form of findings that have been generated through constant research by the three organizations that collaborated to create the report. It shows how correct supervision can continuously and sustainably improve the academic performance of students in school. The report is an aggregate of three large organizations work: the Texas Center for District and School support, Texas Educat, and Region 13Educaiton Resource Center. The authorship lends it an air of credibility.
Buskist, W., & Benassi, V. (2013). Effective college and university teaching. Thousand Oaks, Calif: SAGE Publications.
Buskist and Benassi use the entire book to talk about effective strategies used in teaching in a campus environment. One must consider the fact that students in universities/campuses are young adults. They only learn what they are interested in since they have the choice over even what they study. The book goes into the details of the laissez-faire method of instructing students. That helps to develop the thesis that over-supervision can stunt, rather than improve the learning outcomes in a university setting. The conclusions that the authors arrive at rely on scholarship from a wide array of scholars from different fields. One can clearly deduce this from the illustration of conceptual mastery in referring to jargon in this relatively narrow niche in educational research.
Brookfield, S. (2013). Powerful techniques for teaching adults. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Young adults are a particularly difficult category of individuals to teach. While they choose their subjects in university, one must also consider the fact that they may have formed ideas about the classes that may interfere with the delivery of the course content. The book explores techniques of opening up grown students to the lessons in a classroom. University teaches it students to be independent thinkers. The analysis shows that letting pupils make their own mistakes while learning is a sure way of cultivating dynamic minds. It is relevant to my discussion because the conclusions that the book comes to are a perfect fit to a discussion on the ills of over-supervision. The book is a recent publication, meaning that the insights it offers are contemporary. These are relevant and make the lessons in the book believable and applicable.
Kessler, R. (2000). Soul of education : helping students find connection, compassion, and character at school. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com
Education seems to be a necessary evil that has been given a permanent place in our societies, institutions and especially the lives of our children. The classroom is where students express themselves; show their deepest thoughts, expos themselves to venerability of classmates criticism. This is where the students will blossom into societal leaders. The contextual meaning of education in this writing goes to establish its deliverance or conduit as just merely altering words from school curricula to infest the head to generate ideas, however it goes on to see education as a wholly inclusive package including actions and gestures. The article also points out the success of the intellectual America. That is science and technology, economics and politics. However, the country has failed in matters of the heart and soul and its preoccupation with sex.These are all matters of the soul. But how can we include the religious factor into educational system. With the existence of different religions, and the diversity in the sect of every major religion. Which one should we use. The emergence of the new age system, should they also be included or sidelined? These all give complexity to an already forgotten aspect of education which is the soul. But in all these diversity of ideals and systems, educators and parents are seeing the need of the spiritual aspect of the spiritual aspect education and the danger of lack of them.

Epstein, Debbie, Boden, Rebecca, and Kenway, Jane. Teaching and Supervision. London: SAGE Publications, 2007. Accessed February 26, 2018. ProQuest Ebook Central.
This book explains the various issues teachers go through to both supervise and teach graduate and undergraduate students. The book focuses on how to establish sound practices and approaches to teaching and supervising students. Students should be provided with specific job descriptions outlining expectations and responsibilities. Take the time to review tasks and to make certain your student employees receive proper training in order to accomplish the tasks. A procedural manual can be helpful in many situations. Supervise their work closely, give them deadlines to meet whenever possible, and evaluate their performance often. A little bit of praise and encouragement can go a long way! Students can learn and benefit from the supervisor’s expertise and constructive criticism. Whenever possible, increase the level of responsibility of your student employees. Remember, if you have been specific in outlining expectations to student employees it is easier to point to the same expectations if issues arise with performance of your student employees. The book also shows various other ways teachers can adapt through communication. If there is a conflict between a student’s academics and job, academics must come first. The student can and should however learn how to manage time so that the impact on the position is minimal. Make it clear what is expected regarding the commitment and how to notify you if he/she must be absent.

Erwin, J. C. (2004). Classroom of choice : giving students what they need and getting what you want. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com.
Most teachers/professors go into the classroom with the mindset of just putting things on the board and walking out without having any concern if students understand or not. This book shows numerous ways of how to entice students to love what they are being taught and actually practicing them.
Teacher should have the mindset of wanting to inspire students to do their best, wanting young people respect each other and themselves, wanting to help students achieve their potential and also wanting students to be successful in class. The book also provides specific strategies teachers can use to what actually motivates students in order for high quality learning to take place. This book also talks about making students make a classroom of their choice there by making students feel comfortable to learn and able to express their opinions at any time. Some teachers make it difficult for students to voice their opinions in class for fear of criticism by classmates or the gap the teacher have placed between him and his students making it difficult to ask questions.
Another effective technique teachers can use to motivate students is by rewarding them. Rewards change the way people feel about what they do. Students get motivated when they know they can get extra credit for participation in class activities thereby making them to open up more. The book also talks about trust as one of the main tools for teachers to manage students. A school can have abundance of resources and effective teaching programs in place, but students learning will suffer if trusting relationships is not part of the formula.

THE GUIDE FOR WRITING THE RESEARCH PROBLEM :Introduction: Formulating a Research Problem is the first and most important step of the research process. Research is driven by curiosity and there are many ways to select a research topic from something important to the researcher, something that was read in a newspaper, something that was seen on TV, or something that has been observed at work or school. The Research Problem should be a minimum of 250 words, about a page double-spaced. You must cite a minimum of two reference in proper APA formatting.
The main questions a Research Problem answers are:
1. What will be researched? Identify a specific problem, program, or phenomenon
2. Who will be researched? Who is the study population (people)?
Aspects of a Research Problem:
People (the study population): consisting of specific individuals, groups, organizations, communities
Problems: issues or problems facing a group of people, description of situations, associations, needs,
attitudes, population profiles, processes, etc.
Program: contents, services provided, structure, outcomes, consumer satisfaction, effectiveness of an
intervention, cost benefit, etc.
Phenomenon: cause and effect, relationships, the study of the phenomenon itself, etc.
Questions you should ask yourself when composing the Research Problem:
Who is the study population? How can you further refine the study population?
What exactly do you want to understand about the topic/problem?
Is the Research Problem too broad?
How relevant is the research to your study area/discipline/major/interests?
What motivates you to do the research on the chosen topic/problem?
Why should others be interested in your chosen topic/problem?
What are the concepts and issues to be studied?
What concepts and measurements have to be further defined before the study begins?
Do you have enough time to complete the research?
Is an answer to the Research Problem obvious?

What is the goal of a Research Problem?
The ultimate goal of a Research Problem is to transform a generalized problem (something that bothers you; a perceived lack) into a targeted, well-defined problem, one that can be resolved through focused research and careful decision-making. Writing a Research Problem should help you clearly identify the purpose of the project you will propose. Often, the Research Problem will also serve as the basis for the introductory section of your Research Proposal, directing your readers attention quickly to the issues that your proposed project will address and providing the reader with a concise statement of the proposed project itself.
What are the key characteristics of a statement of problem? A good research problem should at minimum:
1. address a gap
2. be significant enough to contribute to the existing body of research
3. be one that will lead to more research
4. be able to be investigated via collection of data
5. be interesting to the researcher and suit his/her skills, time and resources
What are the common parts of a Research Problem?
A Research Problem consists of three parts: 1) the ideal, 2) the reality, and 3) the consequences.
1. Part A- the ideal: Describes a desired goal or ideal situation; explains how things should be.
2. Part B – the reality: Describes a condition that prevents the goal, state, or value in Part A from being
achieved or realized at this time; explains how the current situation falls short of the goal or ideal.
3. Part C – the consequences: Identifies the way you propose to improve the current situation and move it
closer to the goal or ideal.
Four simple steps to write a Research Problem:
Step 1 (statement 1): Construct statement 1 by describing a goal or desired state of a given situation, phenomenon etc. This will build the ideal situation (what should be, what is expected, desired)
Step 2 (statement 2): Describe a condition that prevents the goal, state, or value discussed in step 1 from being achieved or realized at the present time. This will build the reality, the situation as it is and establish a gap between what ought to be and what actually is
Step 3: Connect steps 1 and 2 using a term such as “but,” “however,” “Unfortunately,” or “in spite of”
Step 4 (statement 3): Using specific details show how the situation in step 2 contains little promise of improvement unless something is done. Then emphasize the benefits of research by projecting the consequences of possible solutions as well.
Examples
Example 1
STATEMENT 1: The Ministry of Youth is dedicated to allocating enterprise development funds to both the youth and women. These funds are made available in order to start entrepreneurial ventures that create and expand employment. (provide relevant statistics and quote)
STATEMENT 2: One of the main focuses of the ministry is consistency. Unfortunately, consistency in allocating funds to the next generation of recipients requires prior knowledge of previous allocations and established practices. The current continuous disbursement method does not allow for adequate analysis of previous disbursements before a current disbursement is done.
STATEMENT 3: Continuing with this current disbursement method prevents consistency and causes decisions to become grossly political, which in turn inhibits the achievement of the goals of the funds. Developing a more informed disbursement system could help better implement the consistency focus of the ministry and at the same time help the ministry better monitor and evaluate its funds.
STATEMENT 4: This proposed research aspires to explore options for a new funds disbursement system that would focus on consistency. To do this, the researcher will carry out a full stakeholder analysis and use it to propose appropriate policy interventions.

Example 2
Part A. According to the XY university mission statement, the university seeks to provide students with a safe, healthy learning environment. Dormitories are one important aspect of that learning environment, since 55% of XY students live in campus dorms and most of these students spend a significant amount of time working in their dorm rooms.
Part B. However, students living in dorms A B C, and D currently do not have air conditioning units, and during the hot seasons, it is common for room temperatures to exceed 80 degrees F. Many students report that they are unable to do homework in their dorm rooms. Others report problems sleeping because of the humidity and temperature. The rooms are not only unhealthy, but they inhibit student productivity and academic achievement.
Part C. In response to this problem, our study proposes to investigate several options for making the dorms more hospitable. We plan to carry out an all-inclusive participatory investigation into options for purchasing air conditioners (university-funded; student-subsidized) and different types of air conditioning systems. We will also consider less expensive ways to mitigate some or all of the problems noted above (such as creating climate-controlled dorm lounges and equipping them with better study areas and computing space).

Grading (calculated out of 10 points)
Grades will be based on whether or not you address the following questions:
1. Who will be studied? Can the study population be further refined?
2. What is the problem or issue? What exactly do you want to understand about the problem or issue?
3. Is the research problem too broad? Is the answer to the Research Problem obvious or easy to solve beforehand?
4. Is the motivation and purpose behind the Research Problem clear?
5. What are the concepts and issues to be studied? Do these concepts and issues need to be further refined?
6. Does the research address a gap in knowledge or literature?
7. Is the research significant enough to contribute to the existing body of research?
8. Does the Research Problem clearly describe how the project will lead to more research?
9. Will the research be able to be investigated via a collection of data?
10. Do you reference at least two articles?
NGrayNicolas-Prospectus
Title: Whose College Readiness Is It Anyways: College Readiness, Cultural Capital and the Effect of Pre-College Transition Programs
High schools are charged with preparing student for post-secondary endeavors, yet the majority of high school graduates in the 21st century in the United States are not academically prepared for the rigor of postsecondary education or to enter the workforce (American College Test [ACT], 2012; Barnes and Slate, 2010; Conley, 2007a, 2007b). Frequently pointed out for this lack of college readiness are the following reasons: inconsistent linkages between high schools and higher education institutions, inadequate academic preparation, lack of rigorous course work, and an absence of proper guidance and support. With the attention turned on the preparation in high schools as the cause of and solution to the lack of college readiness, high school counselors and pre-college transition programs (also referred to as dual enrollment programs) emerged as systems that will promote a seamless transition between high school and college. The role of guidance counselors and pre-college transition programs represent important assets of capital in the sense that access to them could promote upward social mobility. Marginalized students (students of color, poor/working class students and first generation college students) are still not afforded the recourses that their white and more affluent counterparts are. Capital is an important lens to explore college readiness and access to pre-college transition program.
The proposed study will be qualitative case study. It will contribute to the discussion of access to and preparation for higher education through the use of pre-college transition program. Second, this study will add to the literature on the pre-college transition programs and how pre-college transition programs contribute (or not) to the college going process of marginalized students. Finally, this study will contribute to the body of literature pertaining to school counselors as capital. Studies show that perception of high school counselors as it relates to their roles and responsibilities affect how they preform and for whom (Bryan et al., 2011 and Farmer-Hinton & Adams, 2006). Data will be collected at three different high schools through interviews and observation. I will use semi-structured protocols to conduct face-to-face interviews (Creswell, 2009) with students, staff, and administration. The interviews will be recorded, transcribed, coded, and conceptualized.